In an attempt to expand into Europe, Ottoman Turks under the command of Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa laid siege to Vienna for two months. A coalition of Polish, German and Austrians led by John III Sobieski, the King of Poland, arrived before Vienna to raise the siege. Sobieski led a charge of 20,000 cavalry, including the fearsome Winged Hussars into the Ottoman camp and completely routed their army. The battle was over in three hours, the Turks fled the field leaving behind tents, weapons, battle standards and provisions. The threat to Europe had been reversed, and this battle signaled the beginning of the end for the Ottoman Empire.
Charles II rides out to lead his army. Including many Scots who fought on his side.
Captain F Macbeans Company, 1st Battalion Royal Artillery in action on the right of the British line, firing its 12 pounder guns against French Cavalry and Infantry. By permission of David Rowlands. Battle of Minden 1st August 1759. Major battle of the Seven years war. After the French victory in April at Bergen, The French Army 60,000 strong under the command of Duc Louis de Contades marched northwards towards Hanover. To block this French Advance the Prussian Army under Field Marshall The Duke of Brunswick decided to hold the line at Minden. The Duke of Brunswick could only raise a force of 45,000 men including a British Contingent under Lord George Sackville of 6 regiments, a detachment of cavalry and some artillery. The French opened the battle attacking, the British Infantry regiments probably due to a misunderstanding, advanced and they were followed by the Hanoverian Infantry. They attacked the French cavalry. The Infantry advanced only stopping to let off a volleys of fire. This unconventional use of Infantry against cavalry, the French force confused and suffering losses broke. The victory was in Ferdinands grasp, he ordered his cavalry forward but the British general Sackville refused to send his cavalry after the French. For this action he was later court-martialled by King George II and cashiered from the army. The French were able to withdraw in order, but their losses had been 7,000 men and 43 artillery guns. The British and Hanoverian losses were less than 3,000 with 1500 of these casualties inflicted on the British Infantry. This battle ended all French hopes of capturing Hanover. British Regiments at Minden. 12th of Foot. (Suffolk Regiment) 20th Foot. (Lancashire Fusiliers ) 23rd of Foot. (Welch Fusiliers), 25th of Foot, (Kings own Scottish Borderers), 37th of Foot. (Royal Hampshire Regiment), 51st Foot (Kings own Yorkshire Light Infantry)
During the Seven Years War (1756 - 63) a large French army of 52,000 men commanded by Marshal Contades moved from the Rhine to take Minden and threaten the Electorate of Hanover, one of Britains allies in the war. Ferdinand of Brunswick commanding an allied army consisting of British, Brunswick, Hanoverians and Hessen - Cassell troops numbering 42,000 stood in their way. The battle began at first light with the allies forming up in 8 columns preparing to advance. Due to a misunderstanding of orders two brigades, which included the 12th, went into the attack before the rest of the line had properly formed. With drums beating and colors flying they launched a frontal attack on French cavalry, and against all odds held firm and threw them back in confusion. By this time the rest of the infantry had arrived in support and the French army was routed. Minden is remarkable for this unique attack by infantry in line against a mass of cavalry.